Category Archive for 'Paganism and Spirituality'

A Small Tribute to “Ai Gu” (Daddy’s Elder Sister)

Tuesday, November 18th, 2014

I was just about to get comfortable to study some languages again. Then, I find out my 90-something-year-old aunt died last night. Now, my brain is busy trying to remember something more concrete about her. Most of my memories of her are from my childhood. Those memories are pretty vague. :-(

This is the aunt who in her 80s would go to the casino by herself. (She doesn’t speak much English from what I recall.) A cousin of mine (my aunt is her grandmother) had told me this. My reaction at the time was “That’s just awesome”. :-)

Funny enough, the most concrete memory I have of my aunt (who is my dad’s elder sister) is from my dad’s funeral almost 18 years ago. His funeral hadn’t started yet. People were lingering around, then this lady comes in and starts wailing. It was my aunt. I’m pretty sure she startled both my brother and I. Later, my sister told me my other cousin had to tell my aunt to stop because she was scaring “the children” (lol). My sister then told me that the wailing is a Chinese tradition. Someone had to wail at the funeral so that the Chinese spirits could hear. It usually has to be someone really close to the deceased. Because this was my aunt’s younger brother’s funeral, she fit the role for that well.

Now, I’m wondering who will wail for my aunt.

Another Chinese funeral custom is the burning of “hell money”. This money supposedly pays off any spirits that block the passage of the deceased to the underworld/otherworld. I think it is similar to the Greek tradition of paying the ferryman so that the deceased can cross the river.

I wasn’t especially close to my aunt, but I recall her visiting my mom off and on during my childhood. I wish I knew more about my aunt, my mom, my dad, and my other relatives.  I wish I knew what it was like for them to leave their home country to immigrate to a new country. Language barrier and time seem to be the biggest obstacles in that regard.

It’s funny that when a relative dies, no matter how close you are or not (or how much you liked or disliked that person), you feel like a part of you dies with them. I think it’s the connection to the past and to a history that you never knew about that you end up missing. Next time I’m at my mom’s, I’ll have to get her to dig out her old photo albums. Pictures tell so much and yet so little, but they are better than nothing.

Happy Samhain!

Saturday, October 31st, 2009

Samhain (aka the Witches’ New Year) is traditionally celebrated on October 31 through to November 2. The astrological timing of Samhain this year is November 7 at 1:49 a.m. EST. This is also noted as Start of Winter solar segment in the Chinese calendar.

Here are upcoming calendar dates (through to the winter solstice):

November 11 – Popping Trees month in the Lakota calendar
November 16 – new moon at 2:14 p.m. EST
November 17 – start of the 10th lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Pig month in Chinese astrology
November 22 – Light Snow segment in the Chinese calendar (occurs when the Sun enters Sagittarius which according to EST occurs November 21 at 11:22 p.m. or November 22 at 12:22 p.m. Chinese ST)
November 24 – Elder month in Graves’ calendar
November 26 – Tide month in Kondratiev’s calendar
December 2 – full moon at 2:30 a.m. EST; Long Nights Moon (folk name for the full moon)
December 7 – 11th solar month in the Chinese calendar, Heavy Snow segment
December 11 – Hard Freeze month in the Lakota calendar
December 16 – new moon at 7:02 a.m. EST; start of the 11th lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Rat month in Chinese astrology

The winter solstice (aka Yule) occurs on December 21 at 12:47 p.m. EST, when the Sun enters Capricorn. The Chinese calendar notes the Winter Solstice solar segment as occurring on December 22. According to Chinese ST, the Sun enters Capricorn on that day at 12:47 a.m. (I should note here that December 22 is Graves’ Day Apart since I am using his calendar with EST.)

Now we have come to my final blog entry on calendar dates. Thank you for following the past year with me. I will be working on a separate writing project involving calendar dates and astrological events that will require me to divert some of my focus and attention away from this blog, though I will try to keep updates on here about various writing projects on which I am working. Please do return to this blog every so often as writing is no fun without those who read what is written! :)

Happy harvesting, merry Yule, and best wishes for future endeavours!
~~~C

Calendar update – Happy Harvestide!

Monday, September 21st, 2009

The autumn equinox (aka Harvestide) occurs when the Sun enters Libra. This year it is on September 22 at 5:18 p.m. EDT. The autumn equinox is also noted as a solar segment in the Chinese calendar, occurring on September 23 (Chinese ST).

Here are upcoming calendar dates (through to Samhain):

September 29 – Ivy month in Graves’ calendar
October 1 – Boar month in Kondratiev’s calendar
October 4 – full moon at 2:10 a.m. EDT; Blood Moon (folk name for the full moon)
October 8- 9th solar month in the Chinese calendar, Cold Dew segment
October 11 – Harvest month in the Lakota calendar
October 18 – new moon at 1:33 a.m. EDT; start of the 9th lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Dog month in Chinese astrology
October 23 – Frost Descends segment in the Chinese calendar (occurs when the Sun enters Scorpio which according to EDT occurs October 23 at 2:43 a.m. or at 2:43 p.m. Chinese ST)
October 27 – Reed month in Graves’ calendar
October 30 – Cliff month in Kondratiev’s calendar
November 2 – full moon at 2:10 p.m. EST; Mourning Moon (folk name for the full moon)

The next sabbat is Samhain (aka the Witches’ New Year), traditionally celebrated on October 31 through to November 2. The astrological timing of Samhain this year is November 7 at 1:49 a.m. EST. This is also noted as Start of Winter solar segment in the Chinese calendar.

The next calendar update will be around the sabbat Samhain.

Happy harvesting!
~~~C

Calendar Update – Lughnasadh to Harvestide

Thursday, August 20th, 2009

“Better late than never”… I was working on this blog when the “k” button on my laptop decided it would die for sure this time (it’s been buggy for a little while). I was going to wait until September to buy a new laptop (my old one just couldn’t handle the internet anymore and was actually slow even in WordPress), but it seemed fate was sending me a message. As it turned out there were some nice sales on laptops this month (likely in time for “back to school”) and I bought a laptop (an HP) and a netbook (Acer Aspire One) for a total of $1000 and change. 😀 So, finally back to this blog.

August 7th began the 7th solar month in the Chinese calendar, Start of Autumn segment. This was also the date for Lughnasadh this year according to astronomical observances as the sun reaches 135 degrees (Leo 15 degrees) in the sky. It seems fitting to me that the Chinese 7th solar month, Start of Autumn, would relate to Lughnasadh as Lughnasadh is considered to be the second of three sabbats relating to the harvest time. Relating to harvesting, August 11th started Hunter’s month in the Lakota calendar.

Today, August 20 – new moon at 6:01 a.m. EDT; start of the 7th lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Monkey month in Chinese astrology

Upcoming calendar dates:

August 23 – Still Hot segment in the Chinese calendar (occurs when the Sun enters Virgo which according to EDT occurs August 22 at 7:38 p.m. or August 23 at 7:38 a.m. Chinese ST)
September 1 – Vine month in Graves’ calendar
September 2 – Hill of Bards month in Kondratiev’s calendar
September 4 – full moon at 12:02 p.m. EDT; Harvest Moon (folk name for the full moon)
September 7 – 8th solar month in the Chinese calendar, White Dew segment
September 11 – Ripening month in the Lakota calendar
September 18 – new moon at 2:44 p.m. EDT
September 19 – start of the 8th lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Rooster month in Chinese astrology

The next sabbat is on September 22 – the autumn equinox aka Harvestide, which occurs when the Sun enters Libra. It also noted as a solar segment in the Chinese calendar (this year on September 23).

Harvestide is the second of the three harvest sabbats, starting with Lughnasadh. Samhain aka All Hallows’ Eve aka Hallowe’en is the final harvest sabbat before the witches’ new year. If you research traditions associated with these sabbats you will note the progression from the first harvest to the last. The first harvest is consists of fruits and some plants (some plants are harvested closer to the autumn). The second harvest consists of grains such as corn. The third harvest consists of nuts and meats. Traditionally, livestock is reviewed and that which will not live through to the spring is killed for the meat it can provide before it dies of some winter sickness. In this way, nothing is wasted.

The next calendar update will be around Harvestide. Until then, blessings for a bountiful harvest!

~~~C

Happy Double Month!

Wednesday, June 24th, 2009

According to the Chinese lunar calendar, the leap month started on June 23. Because the Chinese lunar calendar is reconciled with the solar calendar, occasionally a leap month has to be inserted. The month is considered to be a leap month because there is no solar centerpoint (such as the Sun entering Cancer at 90 degrees) within that lunar month. (Please see my first article on calendars for more explanation of the Chinese calendar.)

The leap month is considered to be a double of the lunar month before it. This leap month is the 5th Double Month, which means we have two Horse months this year. The Double Month is generally considered to be lucky in the Chinese lunar calendar. So, hopefully a little luck might come your way, especially for those born in the month or year of the Horse.

As mentioned previously, the Chinese calendar is set according to Chinese Standard Time. The lunar months start on the new moon, which means that there was also a new moon earlier this week. The new moon this month occurred on June 22 at 3:35 p.m. EDT (which is June 23, 3:35 p.m. CST, thus the lunar month started on the June 23).

Upcoming calendar events and dates are:

July 7 – full moon at 5:21 a.m. EDT and lunar eclipse at 5:38 EDT; Mead Moon (folk name for the full moon); 6th solar month in the Chinese calendar, Slight Heat segment; Holly month in Graves’ calendar
July 8 – Spear month in Kondratiev’s calendar
July 11 – Hot Winds month in the Lakota calendar
July 21 – new moon at 10:34 p.m. EDT and solar eclipse at 10:35 p.m EDT
July 22 – start of the 6th lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Sheep month in Chinese astrology
July 23 – Great Heat segment in the Chinese calendar (occurs when the Sun enters Leo, which according to EDT occurs July 22 at 12:36 p.m. or July 23 at 12:36 a.m. Chinese ST)
August 4 – Hazel month in Graves’ calendar
August 5 – full moon at 8:55 p.m. EDT and lunar eclipse at 8:39 p.m. EDT; Corn Moon (folk name for the full moon); Salmon month in Kondratiev’s calendar

The next pagan festival after the summer solstice is Lughnasadh on August 1st (if you are traditional) or on August 7th (if you want to observe the astronomical significance of the festival; I am of the opinion that anciently it was celebrated when the Sun was in 15 degrees Leo).

You may note a certain theme in the names of the calendar months in this cycle – predominantly hot! We have Slight Heat and Great Heat in the Chinese calendar and Hot Winds in the Lakota calendar. Tied into this time of heat, we have the theme of hunting in Kondratiev’s calendar (Spear month and Salmon month) and themes of cultivation in the full moon names of Mead and Corn. This is definitely the height of the harvest season, and perhaps you may want to celebrate with some mead or corn! (I’ve already started on the corn. 😉 )

The next calendar update will be at the beginning of August, the time of Lughnasadh.

~~~C

Upcoming calendar dates – Beltane to Midsummer

Tuesday, May 5th, 2009

Here are the upcoming calendar events and dates:

Today, May 5 – Beltane; 4th solar month in the Chinese calendar, Start of Summer segment
May 9 – full moon at 12:01 a.m. EDT; Flower Moon (folk name for the moon)
May 11 – Flowering month in the Lakota calendar
May 12 – Hawthorn month in Graves’ calendar
May 13 – Flowers month in Kondratiev’s calendar
May 21 – Grain Fills segment in the Chinese calendar (occurs when the Sun enters Gemini, which according to EDT occurs May 20 at 5:51 p.m.; the Chinese calendar is set for Chinese time, 13 hours ahead of ET)
May 24 – new moon at 8:11 a.m.; start of the 5th lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Horse month in Chinese astrology
June 5 – 5th solar month in the Chinese calendar, Grain in Ear segment
June 7 – full moon at 2:12 p.m. EDT; Strong Sun Moon (folk name for the moon)
June 9 – Oak month in Graves’ calendar
June 10 – Fiery God month in Kondratiev’s calendar
June 11 – Drying Up month in the Lakota calendar
June 21 – summer solstice aka Midsummer aka Litha (occurs when the Sun enters Cancer); also noted as a solar segment in the Chinese calendar

It should be interesting to note that the names associated with the months around this time of the year are related to fruitfulness and fecundity (e.g. Flowering, Hawthorn, Flowers, Grain Fills, and even Flower Moon for the full moon). Then in June the names are related to heat and fire (e.g. Fiery God, Drying Up, and Strong Sun Moon for the full moon).

The next calendar update will be around the summer solstice.

Blessings for a bountiful spring!
~~~C

Spring Equinox and Calendar Dates

Tuesday, March 10th, 2009

The next major pagan festival is the spring equinox on March 20th. It is popularly known as Ostara and in the tradition of Wicca I studied it is called Lady Day, after the maiden goddess image that is associated with the spring equinox and fertility of this time of the year.

Recent calendar events and dates (I actually was hoping to list these as upcoming calendar dates, but as I mentioned in my last blog entry, life just got in the way of me doing any writing at all):

February 9 – full moon at 9:49 a.m. EST and lunar eclipse at 9:38 a.m. EST; Snow Moon (folk name for the full moon)
February 11 – Strong Winds month in the Lakota calendar
February 17 – Ash month in Graves’ calendar
February 18 – Wind month in Kondratiev’s calendar; Rain Water segment in the Chinese calendar (occurs when the Sun enters Pisces)
February 24 – new moon at 8:35 p.m. EST
February 25 – start of the 2nd lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Rabbit month in Chinese astrology
March 5 – 2nd solar month in the Chinese calendar, Excited Insects segment

Today, March 10 – full moon at 10:38 p.m. EDT; Quickening Moon (folk name for the full moon)

Upcoming calendar events and dates:

March 11 – Fast Waterflow month in the Lakota calendar
March 17 – Alder month in Graves’ calendar
March 18 – Sun-Tear month in Kondratiev’s calendar
March 20 – spring equinox aka Lady Day aka Ostara (occurs when the Sun enters Aries); also noted as a solar segment in the Chinese calendar
March 26 – new moon at 12:06 p.m. EDT
March 27 – start of the 3rd lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Dragon month in Chinese astrology
April 4 – 3rd solar month in the Chinese calendar, Clear and Bright segment
April 9 – full moon at 10:56 a.m. EDT; Seed Moon (folk name for the full moon)
April 11 – Planting month in the Lakota calendar
April 14 – Willow month in Graves’ calendar
April 15 – Hawk month in Kondratiev’s calendar
April 20 – Grain Rains segment in the Chinese calendar (occurs when the Sun enters Taurus, which according to EDT occurs April 19 at 6:44 p.m.; the Chinese calendar is set for Chinese time, 13 hours ahead of ET)
April 24 – new moon at 11:22 p.m. EDT
April 25 – start of the 4th lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Snake month in Chinese astrology

The next pagan festival after the spring equinox is Beltane on May 1st (if you are traditional) or on May 5th (if you want to observe the astronomical significance of the festival; I am of the opinion that anciently it was celebrated when the Sun was in 15 degrees Taurus).

In the next few months, perhaps you may want to celebrate one of the upcoming calendar dates mentioned. Try to determine a significance of that day for you. Pagans commonly celebrate the full moon and the sabbats (solar festival dates). Perhaps one of the calendar dates will provide an interesting meaning for you. As the weather gets warmer, I plan on being more active outdoors. I hope you enjoy the next few months ahead as well!

~~~C

Sabbat Dates and Times for 2009

Friday, December 26th, 2008

As I mentioned in the blog below, I looked up the dates and times of the sabbats according to the sun’s position. Below are the dates and times of the sabbats for this year:

Imbolc – start of spring – 315 degrees (15 degrees Aquarius) – February 3 at 11:46 a.m. EST
Lady Day/Ostara – vernal equinox – 0 degrees (sun enters Aries) – March 20 at 7:43 a.m. EDT
Beltane – start of summer – 45 degrees (15 degrees Taurus) – May 5 at 4:46 a.m. EDT
Midsummer – summer solstice – 90 degrees (sun enters Cancer) – June 21 at 1:45 a.m. EDT
Lughnasadh – start of autumn – 135 degrees (15 degrees Leo) – August 7 at 4:57 a.m. EDT
Harvestide – autumnal equinox – 180 degrees (sun enters Libra) – 5:18 p.m. EDT
Samhain – start of winter – 225 degrees (15 degrees Scorpio) – November 7 at 1:49 a.m. EST
Yule – winter solstice – 270 degrees (sun enters Capricorn) – December 21 12:47 p.m. EST

The dates and times for the relating to the solstices and equinoxes were taken from the Astrological Pocket Planner I use. The dates and times for the four major sabbats, Imbolc, Beltane, Lughnasadh, and Samhain were determined using an astrology program I have. I used a precise location to determine these times. If you are located in Toronto or in the Eastern time zone, the times I found using the astrology program should be a good approximation.

~~~C

Winter Solstice, Calendars, Upcoming Important Dates

Friday, December 26th, 2008

The winter solstice occurred on December 21st at 7:04 a.m. EST this year. The winter solstice can be considered to be a time of beginnings. This solstice represents the shortest day and longest night of the yearly cycle. After this date, the days gradually increase and the nights decrease in length until the vernal (spring) equinox where day and night are of equal length once again (the other equinox being the autumn equinox). According to the Astrology of I Ching (mentioned in a previous blog), the winter solstice is considered the beginning of the next yearly cycle. The winter solstice represents more specifically a point in the solar cycle. It is the time when the sun, as it appears to us in the sky, is 270 degrees from its position during the vernal equinox (during the vernal equinox the sun is considered to be at 0 degrees). In Western astrology, this point is considered to be the start of the sign Capricorn; and the winter solstice occurs when the sun enters 0 degrees Capricorn. (Note for those who have no understanding of the astronomical basis for Western astrology: the signs Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces are just the names representing the twelve 30-degree segments of the sky as seen from earth. Aries marks 0 degrees (which is pegged to the vernal equinox), Taurus – 30 degrees, Gemini – 60 degrees, Cancer – 90 degrees (the summer solstice), Leo – 120 degrees, Virgo – 150 degrees, Libra – 180 degrees (the autumn equinox), Scorpio – 210 degrees, Sagittarius – 240 degrees, Capricorn – 270 degrees (the winter solstice), Aquarius – 300 degrees, and Pisces – 330 degrees. Thus, the zodiac of twelve signs represents the 360 degree circle of the sky. This system of naming the twelve 30-degree segments is attributed to Ptolemy or Hipparchus or both.1 The names of the signs are also names of constellations in the sky, and it is generally believed these names were chosen because, long ago, it appeared that the sun was in the constellation of Aries during the vernal equinox. Presently, due to the precession of the equinoxes, the sun is in the constellation of Pisces during the vernal equinox. Regardless, the zodiac names are convenient for referencing the twelve 30-degree segments of the sky.)

The winter solstice is a significant marker in the Chinese lunisolar calendar (see “The Essence of the Chinese Calendar”). The winter solstice is the solar center point of the 11th solar month. It is always found in or close to the beginning of the 11th lunar month in that calendar to ensure that the 1st lunar month (the start of the Chinese lunar new year) falls approximately during the same time in the solar cycle (also ensuring the Chinese lunar new year does not start too late in the solar cycle).

The winter solstice is used in Robert Graves’ calendar as marking the last day of his 13th “lunar” month, Elder. The day after the winter solstice was named the “Day Apart”. The next day was the start of the 1st month, Birch. Graves’ calendar was discussed in some detail in a previous blog called “Calendars and Full Moons”, where I also mentioned two other calendars, Kondratiev’s and a Lakota calendar by Grey Wolf. Kondratiev’s calendar is not based around the winter solstice. Noticeably though, the winter solstice falls near the end of his second month, the Tide. In the Lakota calendar, the winter solstice falls in the 10th month called “Hard Freeze”.

The winter solstice has gradually become to represent a time of beginnings for me. It is the time of the year where I tend to gather my thoughts and think about the past. Then I start to think ahead and make plans for the time of increasing daylight and warmth. It seems to me to be a peaceful time, a time where I wrap myself in my own imaginary cocoon waiting to emerge when the days start to increase in length. Thus, I have been thinking about the yearly cycle, both the solar and the lunar. I have been thinking about what this time of year means to me. What else could it possibly mean?

Some meanings for this time of year can be drawn from the calendars I mentioned above. As mentioned the winter solstice falls in the 11th solar and lunar month of the Chinese lunisolar calendar. Although the winter solstice is one of the 24 solar segments of this calendar, it follows the Heavy Snow segment (which marks the beginning of the 11th solar month and started on December 7th this year). The next solar segment after the winter solstice is the Little Cold segment (which marks the beginning of the 12th solar month). Little Cold starts on January 5th and is followed by Severe Cold starting on January 20th.

The winter solstice was the end of the month of Elder in Graves’ calendar. The 22nd was the Day Apart. The Birch month started on December 23rd. Meanings associated with birch include birth and beginnings. Graves’ clearly considered this month to be a time of birth due to increase of daylight, which can symbolically be seen as the strengthening of the sun. As I wrote in my earlier blog, “Calendars and Full Moons”, the birch “represents beginnings and it seems to be fitting since this is the time of year where we begin new things even if it’s just thinking of them – conception of an idea is definitely something belonging to birch”.

According to Kondratiev’s calendar we are now in the Stag month, which started on December 23rd along with Graves’ Birch month. We have left the Tide month in Kondratiev’s calendar. Perhaps we could consider what transition takes place from the Tide to the Stag months. Of the Tide month, Kondratiev speaks of a journey into the dark out of which comes renewal and rebirth. Of the Stag month, Kondratiev speaks of the glimmer of light. The stag is as a “luminous presence, bringing hope”. Kondratiev writes “In the context that concerns us, he (the stag) is a most appropriate messenger for the great change that is to take place after the Winter Solstice. Although the earth remains dark and fruitless, nights are still overwhelmingly longer than days, the light has begun – imperceptibly as yet – to grow.” Thus, Kondratiev suggests that, during this month, “we contemplate light – not in association with any meaning or purpose”, but what it actually is – something that banishes the dark and shines bright and clear.

Lastly, we have the Hard Freeze month from December 11th to January 10th in the Lakota calendar. Interestingly, the month in this calendar has a simliar theme to the corresponding solar segments in the Chinese lunisolar calendar. Not surprising if you consider the geographical locations where these two calendars were developed – they have a similar climate. Of this month, Grey Wolf mentions the hazelnut, which is strong and resilient and hard to crack. Perhaps during this month, we need to be like the hazelnut – strong and not cracking under the strain of this very cold time of the year!

Upcoming calendar dates:
December 27 – new moon at 7:22 a.m. EST; start of the 12th lunar month in the Chinese calendar, known as the Ox month in Chinese astrology (the Chinese lunar months start on the new moons)
January 5 – 12th solar month in the Chinese calendar, Little Cold segment (I should note here that the Chinese calendar dates I’m giving are from an actual Chinese calendar, which is set for Chinese Standard Time – 13 hours ahead of EST. No times are given in the Chinese calendar though. To be precise to your location, if you know Western astrology, check the time at which the sun is at 15 degrees Capricorn.)
January 10 – full moon at 10:27 p.m. EST; Blue moon in the Lakota calendar (second full moon in Hard Freeze month, the previous full moon was on December 12th); Wolf moon, folk name for the full moon this month (there are other folk names, but I prefer the Wolf moon)
January 11 – Deep Snows month in the Lakota calendar
January 19 – (See the note for January 20)
January 20 – Rowan month in Graves’ calendar; Severe Cold segment in the Chinese calendar (As noted above, I’m using Chinese calendar dates. Severe Cold segment occurs when the sun enters Aquarius. As mentioned, you may use Western Astrology to find the precise time of this event for your location. I use the Astrological Pocket Planner, which indicates that the sun enters Aquarius on January 19.)
January 21 – The Flood month in Kondratiev’s calendar
January 26 – new moon at 2:55 a.m. and solar eclipse at 2:59 a.m. EST; Chinese Lunar New Year – Year of the Female Earth Ox (1st lunar month, known as the Tiger month)
February 4 – Imbolc; Chinese Solar New Year – Li Chun (Start of Spring) segment (1st solar month) in the Chinese calendar (Li Chun occurs when the sun is at 15 degrees Aquarius. Again, use Western astrology to check the precise time. You will note that I list Imbolc here as well. This was explained in my previous blog, “Happy Dog Year and Imbolc”. When I have the chance, I will check the dates and times for the major sabbats, Imbolc, Beltane, Lughnasadh, and Samhain for this coming year.)

~~~C

Notes:
1. See David Ovason’s The History of the Horoscope on page 23, “…Ptolemy had adopted the tropical zodiac – the zodiac of the twelve equal-arc signs – associated with the mathematician Hipparchus, who set the beginning of the zodiac against the vernal equinox.”)